And carbon dating

This black soot, also known as lampblack, gas black, channel black or carbon black, is used to make inks, paints and rubber products.

It can also be pressed into shapes and is used to form the cores of most dry cell batteries, among other things.

Under very hot temperatures — greater than 100,000,000 Kelvin (179,999,540.6 F) — the helium nuclei begin to fuse, first as pairs into unstable 4-proton beryllium nuclei, and eventually, as enough beryllium nuclei blink into existence, into a beryllium plus a helium.

The end result: Atoms with six protons and six neutrons — carbon.

Naturally occurring graphite occurs in two forms, alpha and beta.

Carbon is also the key ingredient for most life on Earth; the pigment that made the first tattoos; and the basis for technological marvels such as graphene, which is a material stronger than steel and more flexible than rubber.While scientists sometimes conceptualize electrons spinning around an atom's nucleus in a defined shell, they actually fly around the nucleus at various distances; this view of the carbon atom can be seen here in two electron cloud figures (bottom), showing the electrons in a single blob (the so-called s-orbital) and in a two-lobed blob or cloud (the p-orbital). It can link to itself, forming long, resilient chains called polymers.It can also bond with up to four other atoms because of its electron arrangement.The skull was unlike anything seen before, having a flattened cranium with a heavy brow ridge above large eye sockets.Nearby, workers also uncovered an assortment of thick and heavily fossilized bones.

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